Saturday, June 6, 2015

Cardiovascular disease

coronary heart disease

Respiratory System Disorders


Emphysema gradually damages the air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs, making you progressively more short of breath. Emphysema is one of several diseases known  as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Smoking may lead to emphysema.
The alveoli are clustered like bunches of grapes. In emphysema, the inner walls of the air sacs weaken and eventually rupture — creating one larger air space instead of many small ones. This reduces the surface area of the lungs and, in turn, the amount of oxygen that reaches your bloodstream.
When exhale, the damaged alveoli does not work properly and old air becomes trapped, leaving no room for fresh, oxygen-rich air to enter. Treatment may slow the progression of emphysema, but it can't reverse the damage.
  • Tobacco smoke
  • Air pollution
  • Manufacturing fumes

restrictive lung disorders
2 groups of diseases
1.Abnormalities of chest wall which limits lung expansion
»Muscular dystrophy
2.Disease affecting lung tissue that provides supporting framework
»Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (autoimmune disease)
»Pulmonary edema
»Pulmonary embolism
»Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)


Pulmonary embolism
Causes of pulmonary embolism 

  • prolonged immobilization, medications, fracture of legs
  • smoking, genetic predisposition,
  •  an increased number of red blood cells (polycythemia), , pregnancy, surgery, 
  • pulmonary embolus clogs the artery that provides blood supply to part of the lung. The embolus not only prevents the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, but it also decreases blood supply to the lung tissue itself, potentially causing lung tissue to die (infarct).


Pulmonary Edema

Left sided heart failure
Inhalation of toxic gases
-Lymphatic blockage ( from tumor)


Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ADRS)

Causes of ADRS

  • Sepsis. The most common cause of ARDS is sepsis, a serious and widespread infection of the bloodstream.
  • Inhalation of harmful substances. Breathing high concentrations of smoke or chemical fumes can result in ARDS, as can inhaling (aspirating) vomit.
  • Severe pneumonia. Severe cases of pneumonia usually affect all five lobes of the lungs.
  • Head, chest or other major injury. Accidents, such as falls or car crashes, can directly damage the lungs or the portion of the brain that controls breathing.

Friday, June 5, 2015

endocrine system disease

Pathogenesis of Endocrine system disease are:

  • hyperfunction
  • hypofunction of gland
  • Receptor defect
  • 2nd messenger defect

•Glucose level controlled by insulin and glucagon
•Insulin promotes a decrease in blood glucose
•Glucagon promotes an increase in blood glucose
Pathophysiology of DM
Type 1 DM
This is characterized by the destruction of the pancreatic 
beta cells.
The destruction of the beta cells results in decreased insulin production, unchecked glucose
production by the liver and fasting hyperglycemia.
Glucose derived from food is not stored in the liver but remains in the blood stream and
contributes to hyperglycemia(high blood sugar).

Type II DM

This the most common form of diabetes, often

 associated with older age, obesity, family history or diabetes e.t.c.

In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin, but for unknown 

reasons the body cannot use the insulin effectively, a condition called insulin resistance

After several years, insulin production decreases. So thus glucose builds up in the blood and

the body cannot make efficient use of its main source of fuel.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (excess blood acids,ketones)

-is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis.
DKA usually occurs as a consequence of absolute or relative insulin deficiency
(i.e Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus) and is accompanied by lipolysis to increases serum free
fatty acids

Hepatic metabolism of free fatty acids as an alternative energy source (ketogenesis)
results in accumulation of acidic ketones and  ketoacids. In addition, the decreased
glucose uptake by peripheral tissues due to insulin deficiency will increases glucose
(hyperglycemia).DKA is a medical emergency, and without treatment it can lead to death.

Cushing's syndrome and Addisons Disease

continue of immunology disorders(Rheumatoid Arthritis)

clinical manifestation of Aids

ØRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease that primarily attacks peripheral joints and the surrounding muscles, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels.
ØRA strikes women three times more often than it does men.

ØDirect cause unknown.

Diagnostic test results

ØX-rays show bone demineralization and soft-tissue swelling (early stages), cartilage loss and narrowed joint spaces and, finally, cartilage and bone destruction and erosion, subluxations, and deformities (later stages).
ØRF titer is positive in 75% to 80% of patients (titer of 1:160 or higher).

ØSynovial fluid analysis shows increased volume and turbidity but decreased viscosity and elevated white blood cell counts.
ØSerum protein electrophoresis shows elevated serum globulin levels.
ØErythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels are elevated in 85% to 90% of patients (may be useful to monitor response to therapy because elevation frequently parallels disease activity).
ØComplete blood count reveals moderate anemia, slight leukocytosis, and slight thrombocytosis.


  • fever,weight loss
  • fatigue,lymphadenopathy
  • malaise

Immunology disorders

ØHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
ØAlthough characterized by gradual destruction of cell-mediated (T cell) immunity, AIDS also affects humoral immunity and even autoimmunity through the central role of the CD4+ (helper) T lymphocyte in all immune reactions.
ØThe resulting immunodeficiency makes the patient susceptible to opportunistic infections, cancers, and other  abnormalities that define AIDS.

ØHIV-1 retrovirus transmitted by contact with infected blood or body fluids
ØHomosexual or bisexual men
ØI.V. drug users
ØNeonates of infected women
ØRecipients of contaminated blood or blood products
ØHeterosexual partners of persons in high-risk groups