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Friday, June 5, 2015

continue of immunology disorders(Rheumatoid Arthritis)

clinical manifestation of Aids



ØRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease that primarily attacks peripheral joints and the surrounding muscles, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels.
ØRA strikes women three times more often than it does men.

ØDirect cause unknown.

Diagnostic test results

ØX-rays show bone demineralization and soft-tissue swelling (early stages), cartilage loss and narrowed joint spaces and, finally, cartilage and bone destruction and erosion, subluxations, and deformities (later stages).
ØRF titer is positive in 75% to 80% of patients (titer of 1:160 or higher).

ØSynovial fluid analysis shows increased volume and turbidity but decreased viscosity and elevated white blood cell counts.
ØSerum protein electrophoresis shows elevated serum globulin levels.
ØErythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels are elevated in 85% to 90% of patients (may be useful to monitor response to therapy because elevation frequently parallels disease activity).
ØComplete blood count reveals moderate anemia, slight leukocytosis, and slight thrombocytosis.

Symptoms:


  • fever,weight loss
  • fatigue,lymphadenopathy
  • malaise

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