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Friday, June 5, 2015

endocrine system disease


Pathogenesis of Endocrine system disease are:


  • hyperfunction
  • hypofunction of gland
  • Receptor defect
  • 2nd messenger defect



•Glucose level controlled by insulin and glucagon
•Insulin promotes a decrease in blood glucose
•Glucagon promotes an increase in blood glucose
Pathophysiology of DM
Type 1 DM
This is characterized by the destruction of the pancreatic 
beta cells.
The destruction of the beta cells results in decreased insulin production, unchecked glucose
production by the liver and fasting hyperglycemia.
Glucose derived from food is not stored in the liver but remains in the blood stream and
contributes to hyperglycemia(high blood sugar).

Type II DM

This the most common form of diabetes, often

 associated with older age, obesity, family history or diabetes e.t.c.

In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin, but for unknown 

reasons the body cannot use the insulin effectively, a condition called insulin resistance

After several years, insulin production decreases. So thus glucose builds up in the blood and

the body cannot make efficient use of its main source of fuel.


Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (excess blood acids,ketones)



-is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis.
DKA usually occurs as a consequence of absolute or relative insulin deficiency
(i.e Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus) and is accompanied by lipolysis to increases serum free
fatty acids

Hepatic metabolism of free fatty acids as an alternative energy source (ketogenesis)
results in accumulation of acidic ketones and  ketoacids. In addition, the decreased
glucose uptake by peripheral tissues due to insulin deficiency will increases glucose
(hyperglycemia).DKA is a medical emergency, and without treatment it can lead to death.

Cushing's syndrome and Addisons Disease
























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