Emphysema gradually damages the air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs, making you progressively more short of breath. Emphysema is one of several diseases known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Smoking may lead to emphysema.
The alveoli are clustered like bunches of grapes. In emphysema, the inner walls of the air sacs weaken and eventually rupture — creating one larger air space instead of many small ones. This reduces the surface area of the lungs and, in turn, the amount of oxygen that reaches your bloodstream.
When exhale, the damaged alveoli does not work properly and old air becomes trapped, leaving no room for fresh, oxygen-rich air to enter. Treatment may slow the progression of emphysema, but it can't reverse the damage.
- Tobacco smoke
- Air pollution
- Manufacturing fumes
restrictive lung disorders
•2 groups of diseases
1.Abnormalities of chest wall which limits lung expansion
2.Disease affecting lung tissue that provides supporting framework
»Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (autoimmune disease)
»Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
Causes of pulmonary embolism
- prolonged immobilization, medications, fracture of legs
- smoking, genetic predisposition,
- an increased number of red blood cells (polycythemia), , pregnancy, surgery,
- pulmonary embolus clogs the artery that provides blood supply to part of the lung. The embolus not only prevents the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, but it also decreases blood supply to the lung tissue itself, potentially causing lung tissue to die (infarct).
–Left sided heart failure
–Inhalation of toxic gases
-Lymphatic blockage ( from tumor)
3. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ADRS)
Causes of ADRS
- Sepsis. The most common cause of ARDS is sepsis, a serious and widespread infection of the bloodstream.
- Inhalation of harmful substances. Breathing high concentrations of smoke or chemical fumes can result in ARDS, as can inhaling (aspirating) vomit.
- Severe pneumonia. Severe cases of pneumonia usually affect all five lobes of the lungs.
- Head, chest or other major injury. Accidents, such as falls or car crashes, can directly damage the lungs or the portion of the brain that controls breathing.